American War of Independence

By: Radoslav Ganev - 2024-03-09, with: BBC News, Ivy League and

"On Tuesday 11 September 2001 suicide attackers seized US passenger jets and crashed them into two New York skyscrapers, killing thousands of people. The attack remains one of the most traumatic events of the century, not only for Americans but also for the world. What were the targets? Four planes flying over the eastern US were seized simultaneously by small teams of hijackers. They were then used as giant, guided missiles to crash into landmark buildings in New York and Washington..." - By Patrick Jackson, BBC News, 3 August 2021

We still don’t know, who actually plotted that, the greatest terroristic attack, which had ever been done before!

American Revolutionary War

The Revolutionary War (1775-83), also known as the American Revolution, arose from growing tensions between residents of Great Britain’s 13 North American colonies and the colonial government, which represented the British crown.

Skirmishes between British troops and colonial militiamen in Lexington and Concord in April 1775 kicked off the armed conflict, and by the following summer, the rebels were waging a full-scale war for their independence.

France entered the American Revolution on the side of the colonists in 1778, turning what had essentially been a civil war into an international conflict. After French assistance helped the Continental Army force the British surrender at Yorktown, Virginia, in 1781, the Americans had effectively won their independence, though fighting did not formally end until 1783.

For more than a decade before the outbreak of the American Revolution in 1775, tensions had been building between colonists and the British authorities.

The French and Indian War, or Seven Years’ War (1756-1763), brought new territories under the power of the crown, but the expensive conflict lead to new and unpopular taxes. Attempts by the British government to raise revenue by taxing the colonies (notably the Stamp Act of 1765, the Townshend Acts of 1767 and the Tea Act of 1773) met with heated protest among many colonists, who resented their lack of representation in Parliament and demanded the same rights as other British subjects.

Colonial resistance led to violence in 1770, when British soldiers opened fire on a mob of colonists, killing five men in what was known as the Boston Massacre. After December 1773, when a band of Bostonians altered their appearance to hide their identity boarded British ships and dumped 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor during the Boston Tea Party, an outraged Parliament passed a series of measures (known as the I ntolerable, or Coercive Acts) designed to reassert imperial authority in Massachusetts.

In response, a group of colonial delegates (including George Washington of Virginia, John and Samuel Adams of Massachusetts, Patrick Henry of Virginia and John Jay of New York) met in Philadelphia in September 1774 to give voice to their grievances against the British crown. This First Continental Congress did not go so far as to demand independence from Britain, but it denounced taxation without representation, as well as the maintenance of the British army in the colonies without their consent. It issued a declaration of the rights due every citizen, including life, liberty, property, assembly and trial by jury. The Continental Congress voted to meet again in May 1775 to consider further action, but by that time violence had already broken out.

On the night of April 18, 1775, hundreds of British troops marched from Boston to nearby Concord, Massachusetts in order to seize an arms cache. Paul Revere and other riders sounded the alarm, and colonial militiamen began mobilizing to intercept the Redcoats. On April 19, local militiamen clashed with British soldiers in the Battles of Lexington and Concord in Massachusetts, marking the “shot heard round the world” that signified the start of the Revolutionary War.

Declaring Independence (1775-76)

British and American negotiators in Paris signed preliminary peace terms in Paris late that November, and on September 3, 1783, Great Britain formally recognized the independence of the United States in the Treaty of Paris. At the same time, Britain signed separate peace treaties with France and Spain (which had entered the conflict in 1779), bringing the American Revolution to a close after eight long years.

Ivy League, or how independent are USA nowadays

The Ivy League is an American collegiate athletic conference, comprising eight private research universities in the Northeastern United States. The term Ivy League is typically used outside sports to refer to the eight schools as a group of elite colleges with connotations of academic excellence, selectivity in admissions, and social elitism. Its members are Brown University, Columbia University, Cornell University, Dartmouth College, Harvard University, Princeton University, University of Pennsylvania, and Yale University. The conference headquarters are in Princeton, New Jersey.

The term was used as early as 1933; it became official only after the formation of the athletic conference in 1954. All of the "Ivies" except Cornell were founded during the colonial period; they are seven of the nine colonial colleges, those chartered before the American Revolution, and (except for Cornell) they maintained all-male colleges (at least for undergraduates or in some programs) until the 1950s, 60s, 70s, and 80s. The other two colonial colleges, Rutgers University and the College of William & Mary, became public institutions.

PS: The Insurance aftermath of September 11: myriad claims, multiple lines, arguments over occurrence counting, war risk exclusions, the future of terrorism coverage, and new issues of government role.

"...The planes took off separately on separate routes. They were seized by separate teams of terrorists. They were flown in separate patterns toward two separate targets (the North Tower and the South Tower). They created two separate fires and had two separates, although similar, destructive effects on the two different buildings. Under these circumstances, it is not unreasonable to view the collapse of the towers as two separate occurrences even under the WilProp2000 language. They could not be mistaken for one another as might an assembly line of bricks that fall in sequence. One could argue from the dictionary definitions that there is only one occurrence because the WTC losses were “caused” by Osama bin Laden and al Qaida. But if this reasoning is accepted, then the Pentagon and Pennsylvania plane crashes are also part of this one occurrence. If all events had been insured by Swiss Re, the insurer could then argue that it was subject to only one policy limit, a result that seems absurd. Although suggesting that all havoc wreaked at the WTC had but one cause (bin Laden) has a less obviously absurd ring to it, it is also a farfetched contention. Even a resourceful, ruthless, and empowered terrorist cannot cause damage until he or she produces a damage-causing event. Even we give one person or organization all “credit” for the plane hijacking scheme (forgetting that it was carried out by nineteen murderers) ..." Read More